Before I get on that bus (Beoseu), a brief croissant recap: The last post on “Croissant” generated a lot of commentary—including some new ideas about the reasons for the spread of the Frenchish KwuSAHN pronunciation among the moms of my friends and students. One croissant lover on Facebook posted:
I wonder if Julia Child was an influence?
Certainly Julia Child’s presence in the homes of millions must have had an influence on the spread of “kwuh sahn” as the go-to pronunciation for so many moms of my friends. They may be speaking “Julia Child” as much as they are speaking “French.”
Others, like this Reddit comment from alaricus, pulled us back to The French Language:
I’m a Canadian, and so a little biased, but I happen to think that the relationship between French and English is close enough that most French loan words should be pronounced in the French way.
And some others suggested regional difference:
inigo_montoya cruhSAHNT – from US northeast and Midwest
EDFTON Kwason – London
Another Canadian—reporting from Twitter—asked his mom about “croissant,” and she delicately raised the issue of social class:
You mean that bun thing rich people eat?
Other Facebook friends also hinted at the class-connotations of kwu SAHN and kruh SANT, bringing Pillsbury into the picture:
How about crescent rolls?
Still others mentioned, it really depends on the situation:
I use both! When I’m at Miel Patisserie, I’ll say kwu SAHN, but probably not at Trader Joes. Trader Joes is strictly a kruh SANT place.
A couple International graduate students mentioned that they have had odd experiences when they used what they thought was the authentic French pronunciation. For example,
When ordering a ‘Western kwu SAHN’ it was clear the waiter had no idea what I was saying. I immediately switched to ‘Western kruh SANT and everything cleared up
Overall, I noticed two emerging trends:
- Everyone is familiar with multiple pronunciations (though they may not use them all); and
- Many people express awareness of the varying social value of those different croissant pronunciations.
So, we are flexible users of a range of Croissant usages. Why should we care?
Because this type language awareness is much bigger than Croissant. We are talking about new ways of making meaning and using words—not capital L languages, proper pronunciations, or even simple “word borrowing.”
Croissant-like pronunciation issues surround us. Some of them seem obvious. Most of us would never say the Frenchish kwu-SAHN at Trader Joes, when asking for a cheap, yet buttery, 3-pack. But, other words with croissant-like pronunciation issues may skirt our awareness.
To illustrate, lets move on to bigger things. Like the word bus. Not controversial, right? But what if you are in Korea? Like Croissant, Bus is considered a “loanword” in Korean. So, if you like GRE analogies, Croissant is to the United States as Bus is to Korea:
Croissant:United States::Bus: Korea
But if you say “Bus” in Korea, you might say it more like this:
버스 or “beoseu”
Of course, American travelers sometimes miss this nuance. As a transnational US/Korean graduate student told me yesterday:
Many Americans in Korea see that “Bus” is an “English” word and use American pronunciation. Most people in Korea wouldn’t understand them.
So, to use the word “bus” effectively in Korea, it seems you must pronounce this word as “beoseu.” Let’s revisit that analogy! Now, KruhSANT is to kwu SAHN as beoseu is to bus.
Kruh SANT: kwu SAHN::Beoseu:Bus
Even if you are an amazing English speaker who knows Korean, to be a competent communicator, you need to use the beoseu pronunciation. So I had to ask the student, as a Fluent speaker of English and Korean, as someone born in the U.S., but whose childhood was split between the United States and Korea, how do you say “bus” in Korea?
I say Beoseu—even when speaking English. If I said “bus,” people would probably think I was showing off or being pretentious.
Sound familiar? In the United States, Croissant becomes KruhSANT (not pretentious), In Korea, Bus becomes Beoseu (not pretentious). Why, you might ask, is this not simple “borrowing” of a “loan word”?
As these examples, show, and I hope to see more, when we say a word a particular way, we enact a unique identity, imply a social background, or attempt to spark a certain type of relationship with the person we are talking to. Thank goodness there are different ways to say “croissant”! This means there are more possibilities for expression:
What if one wanted to get silly with the ironic Trader Joe’s types? Use “Kwuh-Sahn”:
Do you have any more kwu-SAHN 3-packs?
Or, what if someone wanted to enact an ironically cosmopolitan Korean? Maybe they could use “Bus”:
Where does this train/bus go?
i bus-neun eodi-ro gamnikka?
We are not simply “borrowing” words from another language and struggling to pronounce them in some original or authentic way. Each new word expands our repertoire—the fact that it is layered with a history in another country, place, or social milieu adds to the possibilities for both communicative brilliance and breakdown. Life remains interesting.
Are you a speaker of multiple languages? A master of mixture? Please comment or add your examples below!